Glossary

ablation: Removal of corneal tissue to reshape the cornea to correct vision problems using a laser.

accommodate: Way by which the eye’s lens alters its focal point to bring near and far objects into focus.

AK: An acronym for Astigmatic Keratotomy, a refractive surgical procedure using a blade rather than a laser for the correction of astigmatism. This is rarely performed anymore except during cataract surgery.

Allegretto Wave Eye-Q Laser – The excimer laser previously used by Dr. Mozayeni to shape the cornea during an OptiLASIK or PRK LASIK procedure. Manufactured by Alcon. Replaced with the WaveLight EX500 Laser in 2014.

astigmatism: A vision problem that results in blurred distance and/or near vision. Light rays entering the eye are bent unequally, which prevents the formation of a sharp point of focus on the retina. This creates a blurring of parts of objects you see.

cataract: Clouding of the lens inside the eye that can lead to vision loss. It can be replaced with an artificial lens implant.

CK: An acronym for Conductive Keratoplasty, a refractive surgical procedure which uses radio frequency (RF) energy to heat and shrink the corneal tissue. This “steepens” the cornea to create the desired refractive effect. This procedure is rarely used anymore.

closed-loop: A constant connection between the eye tracking device and the laser system to influence the placement of the laser beam.

cornea: The clear front tissue of the eye. Refractive eye surgeries like PRK, LASIK, LASEK and RK procedures reshape this tissue to correct vision problems.

corneal flap: A thin piece of tissue on the surface of the cornea made with a microkeratome (blade LASIK) or a laser (OptiLASIK) at the beginning of a LASIK eye surgery procedure. This flap is folded back before another laser is used to re-shape the inner layers of the cornea. It is typically the thickness of a human hair.

Corneal Mapping – A corneal map is as image of someone’s cornea that shows the elevation and imperfections. Dr. Mozayeni utilizes the Pentacam® corneal mapping system to gain this information. It is critical in determining LASIK eye surgery candidacy.

Cystalens™ – An intraocular lens manufactured by Bausch & Lomb. Used during cataract surgery and intended to provide both distance and near vision.

dilated pupils: Widening of the pupils achieved by placing drops in the eyes. Your near vision will normally be blurry for 3 to 5 hours after dilation. It is done to assure the internal health of the eyes as well as verifying the accuracy of your correction needed for distance vision.

diopters: A unit of measurement for myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism that usually falls within a scale of +14 to -14. A positive number indicates hyperopia and a negative number indicates myopia. Positive and negative numbers are also used to indicate astigmatism. Whether the number is positive or negative, the higher the number, the greater the extent of the vision problem.

dry eye: Dryness of eye tissue is usually due to deficient tear or natural oil production that can cause burning, stinging and the feeling that something is in the eye.

epithelium: The protective skin layer of cells covering the cornea.

excimer laser: A type of laser used in LASIK eye surgery that removes tissue from the cornea.

farsightedness: A common term for hyperopia, a vision problem that most commonly results in blurred close vision. Moderate to severe hyperopia may also result in blurred distance vision especially over 40 years of age. The cornea and lens focus light rays behind, rather than directly on, the retina.

glaucoma: A condition usually associated with high eye pressure. This condition results in damage to the nerve at the back of the eye and possible loss of vision.

hyperopia: A vision problem, commonly called farsightedness, that results in blurred close vision. Moderate to severe hyperopia cases may also result in blurred distance vision. The cornea and lens focus light rays behind, rather than directly onto, the retina.

I-LASIK: Same as IntraLASIK or OptiLASIK, but specifically referring to the combination of Intralase technology and the VISX® Star S4™ Laser.

IntraLASIK: Also known as blade-free LASIK eye surgery. This is an all laser vision correction procedure where a laser is used to create a flap rather than a blade.

Intraocular Lens Replacement: Procedure whereby artificial lenses made of plastic, silicone or acrylic are implanted in the eye to improve its focus and correct vision problems associated with cataracts. These lenses take the place of the cataract once it has been removed.

Intraocular Lenses (IOLs): Artificial lenses made of plastic, silicone, or acrylic, which are implanted in the eye to improve its focus and correct vision problems as part of cataract surgery.

Intraocular Pressure (IOP): The pressure inside the eye produced by the fluids contained within the eye.

LASEK: An acronym for Laser Assisted sub-Epithelial Keratectomy, a refractive surgical procedure similar to PRK, where the surface cells (epithelium) of the cornea are removed prior to laser treatment. Then the laser reshapes the cornea to improve vision. Once laser ablation is complete, the surface cells are replaced over the reshaped area.

LASIK: An acronym for Laser In-Situ Keratomileusis. LASIK eye surgery is a type of procedure in which the cornea is reshaped to improve vision. A device called a microkeratome is used to surgically create a thin, hinged flap of corneal tissue. The flap is folded back, the laser is directed to the corneal surface exposed beneath the flap and the flap is brought back into place. If the flap is created by a laser then it is referred to as All-Laser Blade-Free LASIK eye surgery.

lens: A structure inside the eye that helps to focus light onto the back of the eye. It becomes a cataract with advancing age.

mixed astigmatism: A type of astigmatism that results in blurred distance and near vision. Light rays entering the eye are bent at different points, with one point focused in front of the retina and the other point focused behind the retina. Clear vision requires that all focus points be directly on the retina.

monovision: An approach to laser vision correction that intentionally corrects one eye for distance vision and the other for close vision. This can be done with contact lenses or various surgical procedures.

myopia: Another term for nearsightedness. A condition of the eye that results in blurred distance vision. The cornea and lens focus light rays from distant objects in front of the retina. This incorrect focusing of light results in blurred images of objects at a distance.

nearsightedness: A common term for myopia. A condition of the eye that results in blurred distance vision. The cornea and lens focus light rays from distant objects in front of the retina. This incorrect focusing of light results in blurred images of objects at a distance.

OptiLASIK™ – LASIK eye surgery procedure conducted using the WaveLight EX500 Laser.

Orbscan – Legacy corneal mapping technology. Has been superseded by the Pentacam® corneal mapping system.

Pentacam® – State-of-the-art corneal mapping technology used during LASIK eye surgery consultations. One of the main advantages of corneal mapping  includes the ability to fully record and examine a patient’s corneal topography, which allows many previously turned down individuals to undergo LASIK.

Photorefractive Keratectomy: Commonly referred to as PRK, it is a common laser vision correction procedure. PRK eye surgery uses an excimer laser to remove tissue from the surface of the cornea below the skin or epithelial layer.

presbyopia: An eye condition commonly due to aging and a stiffening of the lens, which results in an eye that can no longer accommodate for near or “reading” vision. The individual is no longer able to read clearly and typically requires reading glasses.

Presbyopic Multifocal LASIK (PML): Also known as Presby-LASIK, this refractive eye surgery is used to correct presbyopia, which is typically found in middle-aged adults. Different from monovision where only one eye is corrected for near vision, PML eye surgery adjusts both to focus at both near and distant vision.

PRK: An acronym for Photorefractive Keratectomy, a refractive LASIK eye surgery procedure that uses an excimer laser to remove tissue directly from the surface of the cornea but just below the skin or epithelial layer.

punctal plugs: A device that may be inserted into your tear drainage ducts to help retain tears and reduce dry eye symptoms. These plugs can be dissolvable or non-dissolvable.

Radial Keratotomy: Commonly referred to as RK, this refractive surgical procedure flattens the central cornea with a series of spoke-like incisions. It is no longer performed in the United States.

Restor® – An intraocular lens manufactured by Alcon. Used during cataract surgery and intended to provide both distance and near vision.

retina: The light sensitive nerve layer in the back of the eye that receives visual stimuli that are transmitted to the brain.

Rezoom™ – An intraocular lens manufactured by Abbott Medical Optics (AMO). Used during cataract surgery and intended to provide both distance and near vision.

tracking device: A component of some (but not all) LASIK eye surgery systems designed to ensure accurate placement of laser treatment to the eye during the procedure in the event of eye movement.

Uveitis/iritis: Inflammation of the iris and other internal structures of the eye.

visual acuity: Another phrase for visual clarity, a measure of the eye`s ability to distinguish the shape of objects. Visual acuity is measured with a traditional eye chart, with the goal traditionally being 20/20.

VisuCam – Camera that takes pictures of the back of your eye.

VISX® Star S4™ Laser – An excimer laser manufactured by Abbott Medical Optics.

wavefront device: A sophisticated measurement device, which passes a narrow ray of eye-safe light through the optical system and measures the optical distortions as the light exits back out of the eye.

wavefront mapping: A sophisticated way to represent visual disorders, these maps are created by passing a narrow ray of eye-safe light through the optical system and measuring the optical distortions as the light exits the eye.

WaveLight EX500 - One of the newest and fastest FDA approved excimer lasers used by Dr. Mozayeni to reshape the cornea during laser vision correction. This laser replaced the Allegretto Wave Eye-Q Laser in 2014.

Z-LASIK – Same as IntraLASIK or OptiLASIK, but specifically refers to LASIK technology made by a different manufacturer.

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